This oxidation state is also seen in the mineral rhodochrosite (manganese(II) carbonate).
Manganese(II) most commonly exists with a high spin, S = 5/2 ground state because of the high pairing energy for manganese(II).
Solid compounds of manganese(III) are characterized by its strong purple-red color and a preference for distorted octahedral coordination resulting from the Jahn-Teller effect.
The oxidation state 5 can be produced by dissolving manganese dioxide in molten sodium nitrite.
Michele Mercati called magnesia negra manganesa, and finally the metal isolated from it became known as manganese (German: Mangan).
The name magnesia eventually was then used to refer only to the white magnesia alba (magnesium oxide), which provided the name magnesium for the free element when it was isolated much later.
Potassium permanganate, sodium permanganate, and barium permanganate are all potent oxidizers.
Potassium permanganate, also called Condy's crystals, is a commonly used laboratory reagent because of its oxidizing properties; it is used as a topical medicine (for example, in the treatment of fish diseases).
Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon.
Manganese phosphating is used for rust and corrosion prevention on steel.
Manganese enzymes are particularly essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen.
Manganese also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants.
The female magnes ore did not attract iron, but was used to decolorize glass.