The debt will remain until the statute of limitation has expired, and as there is no longer a debtor to pay what is owed, the debt must be written off by the creditor.
Assets are distributed based on the priority of various parties’ claims, with a trustee appointed by the Department of Justice overseeing the process.
The appointment is generally done in the plan, confirmation order and trust agreement. 94-45, the plan and disclosure statement must explain how the bankruptcy estate will treat the transfer of its assets to the trust for federal income tax purposes.
The liquidating trustee must also demonstrate that he or she qualifies as a representative of the estate. 94-45 notes that it does not define as a matter of law the circumstances under which an organization will be classified as a liquidating trust for income tax purposes, the conditions are commonly incorporated into plans and liquidating trust agreements whether or not an advance ruling is sought. A transfer to a liquidating trust for the benefit of creditors must be treated for all purposes of the Revenue Code as a transfer to creditors to the extent that the creditors are beneficiaries of the trust.
Liquidating trusts can be effective tools to wind down any business enterprise, including debtors in Chapter 11 bankruptcy cases and entities that dissolve outside of bankruptcy. To that end, in a Chapter 11 case, a debtor’s exclusive right to file a plan is limited to 120 days (subject to extensions for cause), but once a plan is confirmed, the bankruptcy estate ceases to exist and the debtor loses its status as debtor in possession, including its authority to act as a bankruptcy trustee and pursue estate claims.
Norton Liquidating trusts are organized for the primary purpose of liquidating assets transferred to them for distribution to trust beneficiaries. The US Bankruptcy Code seeks to promote the effective administration and settlement of a debtor’s assets and liabilities within a limited frame of time.
When drafting a plan and liquidating trust agreement, parties should ensure that the applicable jurisdictional prerequisites are met.
If a liquidating trustee’s standing to enforce estate claims, as an appointed representative under Section 1123(b)(3)(B), is challenged, the trustee must first demonstrate that he or she has been appointed to enforce the claim.
Absent this provision, a debtor would be required to investigate and prosecute all avoidance and other causes of action prior to confirming a plan, which may take years.
Section 1123(b) (3) of the Bankruptcy Code facilitates the use of a liquidating trust for prompt administration of the estate by providing post-confirmation standing to an appointed representative of the estate to enforce claims and interests.
In the simplest terms, this means selling the position for cash; another approach is to take an equal but opposite position in the same security, for example, by shorting the same number of shares that make up a long position in a stock.
A broker may forcibly liquidate a trader’s positions if the trader’s portfolio has fallen below the margin requirement or she has demonstrated a reckless approach to risk-taking.
In conjunction with the other provisions of the Bankruptcy Code that require a disclosure statement and plan to provide “adequate information” for a claim or interest holder to make an informed judgment about the plan, Section 1123(b)(3) effectively provides notice to creditors of retention and prospective enforcement of claims that may enlarge the estate’s assets for distribution.