, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 19 in World War I.Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
The annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians became the main Italian war goal, assuming a similar function to the issue of Alsace-Lorraine for the French.
However, of around 1.5 million people living in those areas, 45% were Italian speakers, while the rest were Slovenes, Germans and Croats.
The Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, and then on 18 October 1915 launched Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack.
Forces of Austria-Hungary again repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains.
Shellfire in the rocky terrain caused 70% more casualties per rounds expended than on the soft ground in Belgium and France.
By the autumn of 1917 the Italian army had suffered most of the deaths it was to incur during the war, yet the end of the war seemed to still be an eternity away.
[...] The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month.
[...] Not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories.
The offensive gained nothing of strategic value but did take Gorizia, which boosted Italian spirits.