Let us assume that the line A–––B represents the length of the necessary working-time, say 6 hours.
It would indicate that the 2 constituent parts of the working-day, necessary-labour and surplus-labour time, were equal in extent, but not how long each of these two constituent parts was.
The working-day is thus not a constant, but a variable quantity.
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Contents Section 1 - The Limits of the Working-Day Section 2 - The Greed for Surplus-Labour.
The extension B—–C of the line A—–B represents the length of the surplus-labour.
As the working-day is A—–B B—–C or A—–C, it varies with the variable quantity B—–C.
The necessary part of his working-day amounts to 6 hours, and is, therefore, , a given quantity.
But with this, the extent of the working-day itself is not yet given.
Since further the ratio (surplus working-time)/(necessary working-time), determines the rate of the surplus-value, the latter is given by the ratio of B—-C to A—-B.
It amounts in the 3 different working-days respectively to 16 2/3, 50 and 100 per cent.
One of its parts, certainly, is determined by the working-time required for the reproduction of the labour-power of the labourer himself.