Lavoisier noted the overall weight of the jar was unchanged and that when it burned, the diamond had combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
Although crystalline nanotubes have been observed, they are generally amorphous.
The structures of eight allotropes are shown at the bottom of this page.
The buckyballs arrived in comets or asteroids and have been discovered in rocks associated with the Permian-Triassic mass extinction 250 million years ago. A wonderful image released by Michael Ströck under the GNU Free Documentation License: The structures of eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond b) Graphite c) Lonsdaleite d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) e) C540 Fullerene f) C70 Fullerene g) Amorphous carbon h) Single-walled carbon nanotube. Harmful effects: Pure carbon has very low toxicity.
Inhalation of large quantities of carbon black dust (soot/coal dust) can cause irritation and damage to the lungs.
Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Carbon can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel.
In 1779, Swedish scientist Carl Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
In 1796, English chemist Smithson Tennant established that diamond was pure carbon and not a compound of carbon; it burned to form only carbon dioxide.
Characteristics: Carbon can exist with several different 3 dimensional structures in which its atoms are arranged differently (allotropes).
Three common crystalline allotropes are graphite, diamond, and (usually) fullerenes.
Diamond’s high thermal conductivity is the origin of the slang term ‘ice.’ At typical room temperatures your body temperature is higher than the room’s – including any large diamonds you may just happen to have lying around.