Rock form in a variety of geologic setting ranging from locations on or near the earth surface, deep underground, or even in outer space.Most of the rocks we see on the surface of the planet formed by processes that happened long ago, but we can see these processes actively taking place in many places.
Rocks are composed of chemical compounds naturally occurring in nature.
Rocks are composed of particles ranging from microscopic grains to full sized crystals and crystal grains of different kinds of minerals, and containing many different identifiable physical characteristics.
For example, the element carbon has 3 isotopes: C is unstable and will undergo radioactive decay.
All there isotopes have 6 protons, but have 6, 7, and 8 neutrons, respectively.
The Periodic Table is a list of 108 known elements arrange by atomic number (see Figure 2-6).
Of these, 92 are naturally occurring (prior to development of artificial nuclear research and development).This chapter is an introduction to rocks and minerals, and the rock cycle.Basic chemistry is important to all sciences, especially geology!In contrast, minerals considered "gems" are, mostly, exceedingly rare.A rock is a relatively hard, naturally formed mineral or petrified matter; a naturally formed aggregate of mineral matter constituting a significant part of the earth's crust.Rapid rock formation can be seen happening such as lava cooling from a volcanic eruption in places like Hawaii or Iceland.