Alabama, constituent state of the United States of America, admitted to the union in 1819 as the 22nd state.
The soils along the coast of Alabama consist of sandy loams and deep porous sands.
The Alabama climate is temperate, with an average annual temperature of about 64 °F (18 °C), mellowed by altitude to some 60 °F (16 °C) in the northern counties and reaching 67 °F (19 °C) in the southern counties, although summer heat is often alleviated somewhat by the winds blowing in from the Gulf of Mexico.
Most of the thick forests are in the north and northeast.
Pine trees predominate, and live oaks are also found statewide, adding character to the streets of the older towns and cities.
Sweet gum and black walnut are also common, while the colourful red cedar is most abundant in the Tennessee valley and the Black Belt, with stately black cypress clustering around rivers and ponds.
There are many varieties of shrubs and grasses, and bamboo, large canes, and mistletoe are widespread.Within this gradation, several relief regions may be distinguished.Cumberland Plateau region, segmented by upper branches of the Cumberland, Kentucky, and Tennessee river systems, thrusts southward from Tennessee.Occasionally, large-scale outbreaks of multiple tornadoes have turned particularly deadly and destructive in the region, as they did in April 1974 and in April 2011.The warm climate of Alabama has nurtured a rich plant cover, including more than 100 tree varieties.Although Alabama continues to reside in the lower segment nationally in many significant social and economic rankings, there has been improvement in some areas, particularly in ethnic relations, including the integration of schools and the election of African Americans to political offices.